For example: Original text: ‘In Higher education today the ability to become an independent learner is crucial’ (Payne and Whittaker, 2006) Paraphrase: Payne and Whittaker (2006) argue that becoming an independent learner is one of the most important skills at University Points which help you to paraphrase * Make sure you understand the original text Find the important ideas (words and phrases) and mark them or highlight them in some way * Find synonyms or alternative phrases for those words * Change the structure of the text by looking at the relationship between the words and expressing them in a different way (for example by changing the word order) * Make sure that you have not copied any of the original text * Make sure that the meaning is the same as the original text * Make sure you have written in your writing style * Make sure you acknowledge other people’s ideas by referencing correctly Paraphrasing exercises Individually, read through Text 1 below. In groups work through Texts 2 and 3 and decide which of those texts represents a better paraphrase of text 1 Text 1 Smith (1993) identified classroom location as having a powerful impact on the quality of students’ learning.

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Her studies concerned large, often overcrowded English Language classes in Pakistan where the delivery of teaching was in a lecture style format, with the teacher delivering the lesson from the front. As a consequence, classroom ‘zones’ were created whereby students in the front zone tended to receive more teacher attention than students sitting at the back of the classroom. It was also found that teachers often tended to have negative perceptions of students in the back zone. As a result, student motivation was also negatively affected Text 2 Many large classrooms in Pakistan are overcrowded (Smith 1 993) and in many English language classes teachers tend to deliver their lessons in a lecture style format.

This creates zones in the classroom and those students in the back zone have difficulties following lessons. Furthermore, the students in the front zone tend to pay more attention to the teacher than those students at the back. As a consequence, the teachers’ attention has to focus ore on the students at the back to ensure that they keep up with the lessons. Text 3 Studies (Smith 1993) into English language teaching of large class sizes in Pakistan found that where classes were often overcrowded, students’ location in a classroom had a strong influence on way they learn. In such classes where the teacher taught from the front of the class, distinct areas in the classroom were created.

As a result, students sitting in the front of the class received more attention than those sitting at the back. These studies also revealed that teachers in these situations were inclined to think in a negative ay about the students located at the back of the classroom, and that had a negative effect on their motivation. Exercise Individually, write paraphrases of the following passages: There is growing evidence that music can cause physical changes to the body which can improve our health. In the Welcome Trust study, which took place over three years at the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital in London, patients were asked to listen to musical performances.

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