In an independent sample design, the participants were separated into two groups and asked to memorize and eater recall a list of 10 two digit numbers. Both groups received the same list and had the same period of time to complete the task. The experimental group, however, was exposed to classical music during encoding, while the control group memorized the list in silence. The independent variable was the atmosphere of encoding and the dependent variable was the amount of numbers correctly race Lied.
After statistical analysis, the results showed that classical music does not have a significant effect on recall, thus the null hypothesis was accepted. Table of Contents Title page 1 Abstract 2 Table of Contents Introduction 4 Method 5 Results . 7 Discussion 9 References ћ 11 Appendix ћ 12 Appendix a 13 Appendix C 14 Appendix D 15 Appendix E 16 Appendix ћ 17 Appendix G . 18 Appendix H 19 Appendix I 20 Appendix J 21 Appendix K 22 Introduction Many studies have been conducted to support the theory that memory is malleable.
A positive result would indicate that the process by which humans encode, store, and retrieve information can be modified in such a way that may benefit recall. This means quicker remembrance of encoded material. In the past, many researchers have aimed to discover a method to manipulate Emory. Today, there is still much to be learned about the way in which memory works, but myriad approaches have been introduced with the purpose of improving the process. These include one known as the Mozart effect. The Mozart effect suggests that mental ability notably increases after listening to music from Mozart.
The term was first used by Dry. Alfred Tomatoes who studied the effect of Mozart music on childhood development. He hypothesized that the ear’s main function was to develop the unborn brain, therefore listening to high frequencies such as those found in Mozart violin ancestors could energize the brain. Dry. Tomatoes prescribed sonic therapy to his patients and concluded that auditory experiences could occur before birth and exposing prenatal children to Mozart would help the development of the nervous system. In 1 993, Elizabeth Earaches aimed to test the effect of music on the brain’s spatial ability.
To test this she instructed college students to perform different tasks requiring spatial reasoning in different environments. In one environment, they were exposed to Mozart sonata for two pianos, in the other they listened to relaxation instructions, and the last they were instructed to complete the task in silence. The students’ scores on the test were significantly higher after they listened to the Mozart sonata. These results were controversial as the effect was temporary and the results were not always replicated.
Likewise, Maria Speechify conducted a study in which she aimed to see the impact of music on children’s development. She tested the effect with two groups of students. In the first group, Speechify adjusted the student’s curriculum with increased music education classes and decreased language and mathematics classes. The other group had an increase in language and thematic courses and the same amount of music courses. The results indicated that the students with increased music courses performed better in reading and showed no difference in math compared to the group with increased academic classes.
Each of these studies aimed to determine the influence of music on mental ability. An experiment designed to test the effect of music on recall would provide us with ways to improve short-term memory. If the results were to indicate that music does in fact have a positive effect on recalling, the information could be used to improve tasks that require short-term memory. If the results were to indicate otherwise, then the information could be used to adjust the environment in which information is encoded which would also lead to enhanced memory.
Either outcome would serve to modify and possibly enhance memory by adjusting the conditions under which information is encoded. Like the previous three studies, this experiment aimed to determine the effect of classical music on recalling, for the purpose of improving studying methods. The participants were asked to complete a test that consisted of memorizing a list of ten, two digit numbers. Numbers were used as a matter of convenience. The control group memorized the list in silence and the experimental group memorized it while exposed to classical music.
The results of musicians will not be scored since it is accepted that, because they are adapted to music, their performance on the experiment will alter. HO null hypothesis- There will be little or no difference between the environment and the amount of numbers recalled. HI research hypothesis- If the students are exposed to classical music during the encoding time then the amount Of two digit numbers recalled will increase. Method Design This experiment took on an independent samples design, meaning that woo separate groups of participants were used as an experimental and control group.
This design was adopted to avoid the participation of the order effect; exposing the same participants to the same test under the same two conditions at different times would skew the results, as their recall would improve with repetition. It also controlled for maturation; all of the data was collected at one time so the participants did not get a chance to change, or “mature”, during the experiment. The independent variable in this study was the conditions under which the participants memorized the numbers (silence vs.. Music exposure). The dependent variable is the amount of numbers correctly recalled.
Ethical considerations in the experiment were met by providing each participant with a consent form (Appendix A). Furthermore, the participants received a briefing statement explaining the aim of the experiment and their right to withdraw at any time (Appendix B). After the briefing note, the subjects were instructed as described in the procedures (Appendix D). The participants had 1 minute to memorize the numbers on the list. To avoid cheating, a 1 minute break was given after the encoding period, as the experimenters collected the test to prevent the participants room looking back at the list while recalling the numbers.
The participants then had 30 seconds to recall and write down the numbers to the best of their abilities. In the end, the participants received a debriefing statement (Appendix E). The ordinal level of measurement was used instead of interval due to the small number of sample data. Furthermore, the median was used to describe the data because it is the most appropriate measure of central tendency. The statistical test that was used was the Mann-Whitney IS test, given that the samples taken were so small that it is difficult to tell if they re part of a normal distribution.
Participants The target population consisted Of a pure opportunity sample as a matter Of convenience. All participants were high school seniors at Coral Gables Senior High of 17-18 years of age. The 35 participants (N=35) involved in the study were randomly assigned a group by the researchers (Mozart or silence). Both male and female participants were included in the study. Due to the nature of this experiment, the participants were screened for any musical ability to ensure condition constancy; including musicians in this experiment would introduce outliers and possibly skew the results.
Materials Student Consent Form (Appendix A) Standardized briefing notes (Appendix 8) Procedures (Appendix C) Test: list of 10 two-digit numbers (Appendix D) Standardized debriefing notes (Appendix E) pod with Mozart Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, KICK Stopwatch Proceed rest A set of standardized procedures was followed. Speakers Visit the classroom; describe the study that will be taking place and ask their permission to participate. Distribute student consent forms. Pick up the forms next time the class is visited.
Only the results of those who turned n a signed consent form will be counted towards the results. Read briefing instructions to the class, explaining to them what the aim Of the experiment is and assuring them that ethical conduct will be strictly adhered Split class into two groups: one will serve as the control, while the to. Other will serve as the experimental. Place list of numbers face down in front of participants to prevent any unfair advantages. For control group: when the researcher says “you may begin”, participants must flip the list over and begin to memorize the numbers in silence for the next 1 minutes.
A stopwatch will be used to time the testing. For experimental: when the song starts, participants must flip the list over and begin to memorize the numbers for the next 1 minutes. When the time is up, ask participants to flip list over and begin to collect them. There will be a break for 1 After the break, the participants were asked to write down as minutes. Many numbers as they can remember in 30 seconds. When the time is up, ask participants to put their pens down and begin to collect the tests. Make sure to place each test in one of two piles in accordance to the participant’s ole in the experiment. Read debriefing notes to the class, ensuring them that confidentiality and anonymity will be maintained. They will also be informed of their ability to withdraw from the experiment; they were asked to write a memorable code on the back of their tests in case they wish to do so. Rest Its At the ordinal level of measurement, the median, the intrauterine range and the semi-intrauterine range were used in the study because they are the most suited measurements. The mean is the most appropriate measure of central tendency because I is not distorted by outliers.
After the experiment as conducted and the data was analyzed statistically, it was concluded that the median of the control group is 7. 5. The median of the experimental group is 6. The intrauterine range and the semi-intrauterine were appropriate for the sample size in the experiment. The intrauterine range for both groups was 3 and the semi-intrauterine range was 1. 5 for both groups. After calculating these values from the data, the results of the experimental group and those of the control group were very similar.
For this, a Mann-Whitney L] test was performed to determine whether there was a significant difference teen the two results. This test is usually “used for at least ordinal data in an independent samples design in an experiment testing a difference between two conditions” (Crane, 399). The LU and the CO values were both greater than the Circuit, causing us to accept our null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significant difference between the group that listened to Mozart and the group that worked in silence.