Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human organic structure. False The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium. False Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of the organic structure. True Solutes. regardless of size. are able to travel freely between compartments because H2O carries them along the osmotic gradients. False The thirst centre in the encephalon is located in the hypothalamus. True Dehydration can be caused by endocrinal perturbations such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus. True It is impossible to overhydrate because people need as much H2O as they can imbibe to transport out ordinary organic structure maps. False Water instability. in which end product exceeds intake. doing an instability in organic structure fluids. is termed desiccation. True Salts are lost from the organic structure in sweat. fecal matters. and urine.
True Hypoproteinemia reflects a status of remarkably high degrees of plasma proteins and causes tissue hydrops. False Although the Na content of the organic structure may be altered. its concentration in the ECF remains stable because of immediate accommodations in H2O volume. True Sodium is polar to fluid and electrolyte balance and to the homeostasis of all organic structure systems. True When aldosterone release is inhibited. sodium resorption can non happen beyond the roll uping tubing. True Aldosterone stimulates the resorption of Na while heightening potassium secernment. True Pressure diuresis decreases blood volume and blood force per unit area. True Aldosterone is secreted in response to low extracellular K. False To stay decently hydrated. H2O consumption must be H2O end product. True The chief manner the kidney regulates potassium ions is to egest them. True Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood force per unit area and blood volume by suppressing about all events that promote vasodilation and K and H2O keeping. False Premenstrual hydrops may be due to enhanced resorption of Na chloride. True Heavy ingestion of salt replacements high in K can show a serious clinical job when aldosterone release is non normal. True Hypercalcemia causes musculus tetanilla. False
The two endocrines responsible for the ordinance of Ca are pituitary endocrine and calcitonin. False Calcitonin targets the castanetss and causes the release of Ca from storage when serum degrees are low. False The normal pH of blood is 7. 35-7. 45. TrueMost acidic substances ( hydrogen ions ) originate as byproducts of cellular metamorphosis. True Weak acids are able to move as chemical buffering systems for the organic structure because they partly dissociate. TrueThe phosphate buffer system is comparatively unimportant for buffering blood plasma. True The individual most of import blood buffer system is the hydrogen carbonate buffer system. True One of the most powerful and plentiful beginnings of buffers is the protein buffer system. True As airing additions and more C dioxide is removed from the blood. the H ion concentration of the blood lessenings. True Regulation of the acid-base system is accomplished chiefly through respiratory control. and the kidneys besides play a little function. False Severe harm to the respiratory system seldom will ensue in acid-base instabilities. False Respiratory acidosis consequences when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient. True Prolonged hyperventilation can do alkalosis. True
Thirst is ever a dependable index of organic structure H2O demand. False Blood sourness consequences in depression of the CNS. whereas blood alkalosis consequences in overexcitement of the CNS. True 1 ) The body’s H2O volume is closely tied to the degree of which of the undermentioned ions? A ) Ca ions
B ) K ions
C ) H ions
D ) Na ions
2 ) The term hypotonic hydration refers to ________ .
A ) the experiencing 1 might hold after a long swim
B ) the unpleasant feeling people have after imbibing excessively much liquor C ) a status that may ensue from nephritic inadequacy or imbibing extraordinary sums of H2O D ) a status that is caused by high degrees of Na in the extracellular fluid compartment 3 ) Hypoproteinemia is a status of remarkably low degrees of plasma proteins. This job is frequently characterized by ________ .
A ) tissue hydrops
B ) extreme weight loss
C ) extreme weight addition
D ) nervus harm
4 ) Which of the undermentioned endocrines is of import in the ordinance of Na ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?
A ) antidiuretic endocrine
B ) erythropoietin
C ) aldosterone
D ) renin
5 ) Atrial natriuretic peptide is a endocrine that is made in the atria of the bosom. The influence of this endocrine is to ________ .
A ) enhance atrial contractions
B ) activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism
C ) prevent pH alterations caused by organic acids
D ) cut down blood force per unit area and blood volume by suppressing Na and H2O keeping
6 ) Respiratory acidosis can happen when ________ .
A ) a individual consumes inordinate sums of alkalizers
B ) a person’s external respiration is shallow due to obstruction
C ) a smuggler has completed a really long endurance contest
D ) the kidneys secrete H ions
7 ) Which of the undermentioned two variety meats function as the most of import physiological buffer systems?
A ) the lungs and the kidneys
B ) the adrenal secretory organs and the testicles
C ) the thyroid secretory organ and the bosom
D ) the tummy and the liver
8 ) Which of the picks below is non an indispensable function of salts in the organic structure?
A ) neuromuscular activity
B ) membrane permeableness
C ) secretory activity
D ) constructive metabolism of proteins
9 ) Which of the picks below exerts primary control over Na degrees in the organic structure?
A ) Vasopressin
B ) aldosterone
C ) H2O degrees
D ) glucocorticoids
10 ) The fluid nexus between the external and internal environment is ________ . A ) plasma
B ) intracellular fluid
C ) interstitial fluid
D ) cerebrospinal fluid
11 ) Newborn babies have a comparatively higher ________ content in their Extracellular fluid than do grownups.
A ) Fe
B ) Na
C ) Mg
D ) hydrogen carbonate
12 ) Whereas Na is found chiefly in the extracellular fluid. most ________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
A ) Fe
B ) chloride
C ) K
D ) Mg
13 ) Which of the undermentioned describes the distribution of Na and K between cells and organic structure fluids? A ) K+ chiefly in the cells. Na+ in the organic structure fluids
B ) Na+ chiefly in the cells. K+ in the organic structure fluids
C ) equal sums of each ion in the cells and organic structure fluids
D ) little of either in the cells. but big sums of each in the organic structure fluids
14 ) Problems with fluid. electrolyte. and acid-base balance are peculiarly common in babies because of their ________ .
A ) inefficient kidneys
B ) relatively low metabolic rates
C ) low rate of insensible H2O loss
D ) low day-to-day rate of fluid exchange
15 ) The individual most of import factor act uponing K ion secernment is ________ .
A ) the K ion content in the nephritic tubule cells
B ) the pH of the ICF
C ) intracellular Na degrees
D ) K ion concentration in blood plasma
16 ) The term alkaline modesty is used to depict the ________ buffer system.
A ) phosphate
B ) haemoglobin
C ) hydrogen carbonate
D ) protein
17 ) A falling blood pH and a lifting partial force per unit area of C dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates ________ .
A ) respiratory acidosis
B ) respiratory alkalosis
C ) metabolic acidosis
D ) metabolic alkalosis
18 ) The motion of fluids between cellular compartments ________ .
A ) requires active conveyance
B ) is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces
C ) requires ATP for the conveyance to take topographic point
D ) involves filtration
19 ) What endocrine reduces blood force per unit area and blood volume by suppressing about all events that promote vasoconstriction and Na ion and H2O keeping?
A ) Vasopressin
B ) aldosterone
C ) atrial natriuretic peptide
D ) tetraiodothyronine
20 ) Which of the followers is non a method for modulating the H ion concentration in blood?
A ) chemical buffer systems
B ) diet
C ) respiratory alterations
D ) renal mechanism
21 ) Which of the followers is non a chemical buffer system?
A ) hydrogen carbonate
B ) phosphate
C ) nucleic acid
D ) protein
22 ) Extracellular fluid in the human organic structure is composed of all of the undermentioned except ________ .
A ) lymph and interstitial fluid
B ) blood plasma
C ) cerebrospinal fluid
D ) glucose
23 ) Which of the undermentioned statements is true sing fluid displacements?
A ) Nonelectrolytes are the commanding factor in directing unstable displacements.
B ) Electrolytes are non every bit of import as proteins in modulating unstable displacements inthe organic structure.
C ) Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and hence have the greatest ability to do unstable displacements.
D ) There are ever more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution ; it is hence impossible to follow unstable displacements.
24 ) Which of the undermentioned endocrines is of import in stimulating H2O preservation in the kidneys?
A ) aldosterone
B ) thymosin
C ) antidiuretic endocrine
D ) atrial natriuretic peptide
25 ) The care of the proper pH of the organic structure fluids may be the consequence of ________ . A ) the control of respiratory airing
B ) the operation of the assorted buffer systems in the tummy C ) the active secernment of OH- into the filtrate by the kidney tubule cells D ) control of the acids produced in the tummy
26 ) Which of the followers is non a upset of H2O balance? A ) inordinate hydration due to extra ADH secernment
B ) hypotonic hydration. in which Na content is normal but H2O content is high C ) hydrops or tissue puffiness. which is normally due to an increased capillary hydrostatic force per unit area D ) extra H2O in interstitial infinites due to a low degree of plasma proteins 27 ) The ordinance of Na ________ .
A ) is due to specific Na receptors in the hypothalamus
B ) is linked to blood force per unit area
C ) involves aldosterone. a endocrine that increases sodium elimination in the kidneys D ) involves hypothalamic osmoreceptor sensing of ion concentration 28 ) Select the right statement about nephritic mechanisms of acid-base balance. A ) The kidneys are non able to egest phosphorous acid.
B ) Excreted H ions are unbound in the filtrate.
C ) Kidney tubule cells are able to synthesise bicarbonate ion. D ) The kidneys are the most of import mechanism for extinguishing all bicarbonate ions. 29 ) Blood analysis indicates a low pH. and the patient is take a breathing quickly. Give your cognition of acid-base balance. which of the followers is most likely? A ) respiratory acidosis
B ) metabolic acidosis
C ) metabolic alkalosis
D ) respiratory alkalosis
30 ) A patient is take a breathing easy and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosing? A ) respiratory acidosis
B ) metabolic acidosis
C ) metabolic alkalosis
D ) respiratory alkalosis
31 ) One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is ________ . A ) a dry oral cavity from high temperatures
B ) going excessively agitated
C ) imbibing caffeinated drinks
D ) a rise in plasma osmolality
32 ) Annie has merely eaten a big order of to a great extent salted French french friess. some pickled eggs. and some cheese. How will devour this much salt affect her physiology? A ) It will increase the osmolality of the blood.
B ) There will be a impermanent addition in blood volume.
C ) She will see hypotension.
D ) There will be a displacement in the pH of her organic structure fluids to the higher side of the pH graduated table. 33 ) The most of import force doing net H2O flow across capillary walls is ________ . A ) osmotic force per unit area of plasma proteins
B ) hydrostatic force per unit area of capillary blood
C ) hydrostatic force per unit area of interstitial fluid
D ) intracellular hydrostatic force per unit area
34 ) Which of the followers does non depend on the presence of electrolytes? A ) membrane mutual opposition
B ) neuromuscular irritability
C ) care of osmotic dealingss between cells and ECF
D ) sum of organic structure fat
35 ) The ordinance of K balance ________ .
A ) is non linked to sodium balance
B ) includes nephritic secernment. but ne’er soaking up
C ) is accomplished chiefly by hepatic mechanisms
D ) involves aldosterone-induced secernment of potassiumD